Nutrition in case of diabetes

nutritional properties of diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by absolute or relative lack of insulin. The pancreas is the only organ that weighs 70-100 grams and is located in the abdominal cavity in the duodenal arch. It plays a key role in the digestion of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. It also produces insulin, which regulates carbohydrate metabolism in the body. In this article, we will talk about what diet should consist of diabetes.

Types of Diabetes

Doctors differentiate between several types of diabetes because of the cause and course of the disease:

  • Type I diabetes, insulin dependent;
  • Type 2 diabetes, which usually occurs later in life, especially in obese patients.

Type I diabetes is usually caused by damage to the pancreas. That is, primary damage to beta cells (those that produce insulin in the pancreas) and an absolute deficiency of insulin secretion.

The initial signs of type 1 diabetes are intense thirst and hunger, unexplained weight loss, frequent urination, blurred vision, tiredness, and chronic infections. In some cases, the onset is accompanied by convulsions, confusion, slurred speech, loss of consciousness. Type 1 diabetes is considered an immunological disease.

Type II diabetes is more common in obese people. The disease may be inherited or acquired and is characterized by decreased insulin secretion by the pancreas as well as insulin resistance. This means that even the right amount of insulin in the body cannot do the job.

The disease is accompanied by excessive thirst and abundant urination, slowly raising blood sugar levels. The patient feels weak and sleepy. The disease often begins in middle-aged people and the elderly. However, the number of new patients with type 2 diabetes has increased dramatically in recent years. And an alarming number of children and adolescents with this condition are overweight and obese.

Hyperglycemia, what it is

the need to follow a diet in case of diabetes

Hyperglycaemia - Blood glucose is above normal. Symptoms of hyperglycaemia include excessive thirst, dry mouth, frequency in the urine, weight loss, excessive daytime sleepiness.

The most common cause of hyperglycaemia is undiagnosed or poorly controlled diabetes. In people with diabetes, this can happen due to insufficient insulin.

Uncommonly, hyperglycaemia is the result of infectious and endocrine disorders (acromegaly, Cushing's syndrome). There is a high risk of late complications, especially in the cardiovascular system.

Chronic hyperglycemia is associated with dysfunction and dysfunction of various organs - eyes, kidneys, nerves, cardiovascular system.

Proper nutrition for diabetes

Diet is a very important part of therapy for the prevention of diabetes. It is necessary to maintain proper blood glucose and lipid levels and optimal blood pressure. Properly chosen diet reduces the risk of complications of diabetes and reduces the risk of developing vascular disease. An appropriate diet model for diabetes plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of chronic diabetic complications. Including microvascular complications, retinopathy, nephropathy, diabetic neuropathy and others.

Eating diabetes is one of the main factors influencing the outcome of diabetes.

Sugar is important in life, but in this case it is better to remove the sugar bowl! In diabetes, mainly carbohydrate metabolism is disrupted. People diagnosed with diabetes should limit their sugar or carbohydrate intake.

what can and should not be eaten with diabetes

Sugar:

  • monosaccharides - glucose and fructose are found in fruits and honey;
  • sucrose disaccharide is sugar from a sugar bowl;
  • Polysaccharides - Flour products, cakes, cookies and bread, potatoes, bananas, noodles, dumplings, pasta, pancakes and much more.

Carbohydrates for diabetes

Carbohydrates are part of our diet. Their consumption should cover 55-60% of total demand. Much depends on the form and structure of the origin of the carbohydrates. Carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal tract are digested and broken down into simple sugars - mainly glucose.

Please note that excess carbohydrates continuously stimulate pancreatic beta cells to produce and secrete insulin.

As the sugar level rises, the pancreas releases insulin. Insulin is a hormone that allows glucose to enter cells. Simple sugar, like glucose, is quickly delivered to the cells in about an hour.

Unfortunately, insulin is a hormone that lasts for hours and doesn't like to be "out of work. "Thus, increased insulin levels cause fluctuations in blood glucose and carbohydrate hunger.

A hungry person opens the refrigerator and starts eating to satisfy this feeling of hunger. The adrenal glands receive information: fluctuations in blood glucose levels. All of these reactions are a signal for adrenal secretion to release adrenaline. It creates a vicious circle that causes stress, depression and autonomic neurosis (neurasthenia).

It is therefore advisable to keep your carbohydrate intake to a minimum. In this situation, fluctuations in blood glucose levels and excessive production of the hormones insulin and adrenaline do not occur.

how to eat properly with diabetes

Glucose passes through the walls of the digestive tract and enters the various organs with the blood, where it is transformed and becomes a source of energy. When there is not enough physical activity, the need for energy is reduced, and glucose is stored in the muscles and liver as glycogen.

If glycogen is excessive, it is converted into fat, which causes fatty liver and further accumulation of excess body fat. Glucose metabolism is controlled by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas.

Carbohydrates, as the main energy material, can only enter the cell with the help of insulin, which distributes simple sugars in the body. However, insulin deficiency, for example, causes an increase in blood sugar levels, followed by a severe metabolism in the cells. General lack of insulin causes diabetes in children and adolescents, type 1 diabetes.

Protein in diabetes

Protein should cover 10-15% of energy needs. A larger amount is needed for children during the growth period, pregnant women. The most valuable - animal protein is lean meat, cottage cheese, eggs and sour milk.

As our bodies can produce 56 g of sugar per 100 g of protein, it is also important to limit protein intake. To avoid harm to the body, you should eat high quality protein (yolks, meat offal). The sources of vegetable protein are - soybeans, legumes, dark bread made from wholemeal flour.

Diet for diabetes, what you can and can't do

The first stage of treatment for diabetes should include foods such as egg yolk, butter, sour cream, milk and unsweetened vegetables.

During this time, significantly reduce or exclude from the diet: egg whites, lean meat, fish, poultry and nuts.

People with diabetes should not eat or eat high protein foods in the evening. At night, the body cannot use it. Because the pancreas does not make enough insulin, the blood sugar level rises in the morning. In this case, a dinner consisting mainly of carbohydrates and fats is recommended.

Fat contains the most energy. They can cover only 30% of daily energy consumption. Excessively, they contribute to the development of obesity.

Spices such as cinnamon, garlic, cloves, turmeric and bay leaves lower blood cholesterol and blood glucose.

Can diabetics eat fruits and vegetables? Yes, because they are a rich source of vitamins and minerals. Fresh vegetables, including broccoli, are ideal for diabetics as a great source of chromium. An onion that can act to release insulin. Potatoes with skin (boiled potatoes raise blood sugar too quickly), asparagus, raw carrots, fresh cucumbers, sauerkraut, elderberry leaves and garlic tea and garlic.

permitted and prohibited foods for the treatment of diabetes

Vegetables you can eat without significant restrictions:

  • tomatoes;
  • fresh and pickled cucumbers;
  • raw and sauerkraut;
  • chicory;
  • kohlrabi;
  • radish;
  • paprika;
  • salad
  • mushrooms;
  • zucchini.

A great remedy for diabetes - fresh blueberry leaves, which are harvested before the fruit ripens. Blueberries can prevent diabetic retinopathy - studies have shown significant improvement in vision in people with eye disease during diabetes. This disease causes changes in the bottom, which significantly impairs blood flow to the eye.

It is recommended that overweight diabetics (BMI above 25) limit their calories to lose weight.

Glycemic index of food

Blood glucose levels are affected not only by the amount of carbohydrates, but also by their type. Therefore, it is necessary to control the amount and quality of carbohydrates in the diet, but it is also desirable to calculate the glycemic index of the product.

Low GI foods are digested and absorbed slowly, do not rapidly raise blood glucose levels and do not stimulate insulin secretion. A low GI diet reduces the risk of developing insulin-dependent diabetes.

The higher the GI of a product, the higher the blood glucose level after using the product. Foods with a high GI increase, for example, blood glucose levels. Slow sugar absorption and a gradual rise and fall in sugar levels after eating a low GI level help control blood sugar levels in diabetics. It is best to eat foods with a GI of less than 60.

The GI of foods is significantly lower when consumed in their natural form, that is, raw and unprocessed.

Diabetics are also advised to abstain from alcohol.

09.01.2021